From: John Benneth <>


Cc:   James Randi <>
        Professor Gary Schwartz <gschwart@U.Arizona.EDU>
        Professor Brian Josephson <>
        <some addresses snipped off>

Date: Sat, 6 Jan 2001 17:26:30 -0800

Subject: The Dielectric Breakthrough for Homeopathy

Dielectric Breakthrough for Homeopathy

by John Benneth

                 The critic's hypothesis

For decades critics of homeopathy who have failed to properly research
their subject have insisted that theoretically there can be no physical
differences between homeopathic aqueous preparations and plain water, and
that the action of these substances on human beings can be only that of

The critics have insisted that the preparation process of homeopathic
medicines removes all active ingredients from the water in which they are
made. Theoretically, one gram of any substance contains 6.06 x 10 to the
28th power number of molecules. Diluting a substance, ink, for example,
in water at one tenth of its previous concentration and doing this 23
times leaves only six molecules of ink left in the water. It inspires the
question in this example then that at the 24th dilution, how is it that
the solution can contain a piece of an ink "particle" that retains the
characteristics of ink?

Further dilutions beyond the 23rd can leave only a fraction of a
molecule. This contradicts a vaguely held notion in physics of the
non-specificity of the sub atomic field.

Crude observations of our ink in water dilution "mixture" reveal
nothing more than distilled water. However, sophisticated observations
reveal that when the dilutions have been interspersed with a process of
mechanical shock,  called "succussion", the water, as we shall see,  is
left with a dramatic imprint of the vacated ink, becoming a water/ink


If the loudest critics of homeopathy . .  . the self proclaimed
skeptics who insist that homeopathic medicine is nothing more than  the
use of placebos . . . IF they had studied the literature of homeopathy
research they would have found many studies to confound their theories
and null hypothesis.

Is this then why homeopathy is only attacked on a theoretical basis,
and discussion of reports of the hard science research of the type that
follows is left out of their attacks?  Perhaps the key to homeopathy's
long life is because whenever an intelligent, open minded and reasonable
investigation is made of it, it bears the examination and quiets the
obloquy, leaving only those who do not make such reasonable

These are the people who make their opinions prior to their inquiry.
Given that opponents of homeopathy who choose not to examine the evidence
for its efficacy have only theory and an offensive manner to use in
support of their argument, they are left to rail about the lack of common
sense of homeopathy's proponents.

Typically, when such people are confronted with what follows, they
fall silent on the subject with little more to say other than to admit a
confession that they actually know very little about homeopathy. Their
attacks are relevant only to the virtue of the players, not to the truth
of the matter. And this is what distinguishes them as statement bearing
cynics from inquiry making skeptics.

         Comprehensive testing has been accomplished

Studies have been made using the techniques of physics to show that
there are physical differences between homeopathic preparations and plain
water. Tests made on plants and animals show the reactions of living
organisms to homeopathic solutions, destroying the placebo hypothesis.
In this paper we look specifically at one physical measure of
homeopathic solutions, the dielectric stress measure or test (DSM) on
serially agitated dilutions (SADs). It is not the only physical measure
of homeopathic substances, but it has been selected here because it has
been studied exhaustively, uses relatively simple and inexpensive
technology, has  passed double blind tests and has survived replications.

SADs is the term we will use to refer to the active constituent of
these mysterious preparations most often referred to as homeopathic

       Our purpose

It is our hope that this report will assist in demonstrating the
efficacy and physical reality of homeopathic medicine. We can only
speculate as to why homeopathic research is not cited more often in the
discussion of the topic. It appears that disbelief of the phenomenon
fuels arguments that rest only on theory and keep cynics at bay from
acknowledging the known physical measures of homeopathic remedies.

     Dance the dielectric
In 1951 Alphonse Gay of Lyon, France first reported that SADs have
dielectric stress indices (DSI).

Dielectric stress is a measure of the resistance of a particular
material to conduct electricity. The conductivity of water at high purity
is extremely low when compared with impure water, such as water
containing dissolved electrolytes, so water as a test material serves us
well in this inquiry, as we are compelled to study the question of what
characteristics in water are created by the SAD process.

The DSM then is a study of a material's "puncture voltage", (PV) the
point, measured in volts, at which a connection is made between two
electrodes placed in the test solution.

     The dielectric stress test for homeopathic solutions

Using the DSM, Gay demonstrated that SADs have dielectric indices
which differ from their vehicles, the distilled water in which they are
made. He showed the DSM for a particular SAD is specific for the
substance in dilution as well as for the degree of dilution.

The DSI for ink, then, would differ from that of saline, or mercuric
chloride. We suspect that the differences become even more profoundly
anomalous within a time space relation for the same substance tested at
different times, quantities and places.

In 1952 Gay reported a continuation of his work with Jean Boiron.
They reported a series of exhaustive investigations they made into the
DSI of SADs.

In a comparison of the capacitance of distilled water and a SAD of
sodium chloride, put through identical stages of dilutions to 10-60th
(60x), both dilutions revealed  sinusoidal curves in their DSI's which
approximated each other fairly closely except that at 10-26th,10-38th and
10-54th they were in direct opposition!


Gay and Boiron concluded that "Ohms law is not applicable" for SADs.
"The electrical resistance is not linear for frequencies between 1.050
and 2.650 periods per second."

     The Gay and Boiron double blind test

In spite of even more sophisticated measures than the DSM, given the
amount of resistance to and disbelief in homeopathic research we have
found that a half a century later we can imagine the acrimonious reaction
to Gay and Boiron's report. Perhaps to answer the reports that they were
making up their results, Gay and Boiron staged a double blind
demonstration in which they would select a flask containing a SAD of
sodium chloride diluted one tenth 54 times from six other flasks
containing distilled water. They scored perfectly, finding the correct
flask without any trouble in 100 out of 100 attempts.

     American team replicates the dielectric test

The DSM was repeated again in 1966 by Albert Brucato, M. SC., of
Norfolk, MA and James Stephenson, M.D. of NY., NY Although Gay and Boiron
used a modified galvanometer, Brucato and Stephenson used a 50 KV AC
Dielectric Tester, and reported on a DSI of mercuric chloride.

Their investigation was a DSM of mercuric chloride (MC) and 33 SADs
of it in distilled water. They reported on eight series of tests that
gave them a peak, low and average for the MC and it's 33 SADs.

     Here are the results for the first six dilutions:

Brucato-Stephenson Dielectric Stress Test of
Serially Agitated Dilutions of Mercuric Chloride
The puncture voltage for distilled water in these tests
is 6.0 kilovolts

Dilution      Average  Peak     Low puncture voltage (KV)

1x                 2.41        2.45       2.40
2x                 2.52        2.65       2.45
3x                 3.05        3.05       3.05
4x                 3.28        3.50       3.20
5x                 3.75        3.90       3.70
6x                 4.20        4.20       4.20

We can see that the average puncture voltage for the first six
dilutions (1x to 6x) that they tested increases steadily. Their scale
shows that the average PV for a 1x dilution is 2.41, the peak 2.45 and
the low 2.40 kilovolts . As the mercury electrolyte is removed in each
subsequent stage of dilution, the PV rises steadily as we would expect to
a 4.20 KV average at the sixth dilution (6x).
During this sequence there is not anything anomalous to report on,
except for an odd coincidence at 3x, where the average, peak and low PVs
are EXACTLY the same, 3.05  KV. At 1x there was a .05 KV spread, and at
4x there was a .30 KV spread. At 2x there is a spread of .20 KV between
the peaks and the lows.  And then what happened at 3x  happens again at
6x, where the average, peak and low PV is exactly the same 4.20 KV, a
zero spread.

Perhaps there is an inconsistency in the equipment. But in eight
tests of the same potency, one would expect to find the same kind of
fluctuations and spreads as in other potencies. It is highly improbable
then that the meter ALWAYS reads 3.05 when 3x is tested in a series,of
which there were  eight, so each dilution was tested eight times, and
circumstances would have allowed for plenty of "slop", operator or
machine inconsistency or error so as to expect varying results when
testing a particular diltuion in  run from 1 to 33.

So when during two of the six dilutions representing 16 of the 48
separate tests done in this segment we find a sudden consistency, that
for some unknown reason the test circumstance, operator and machine
variables became consistent, or that at q particular dilution there are
no dimorphic differences from one test example to another, we begin to
suspect thta the machine and operator are not the reason for the
inconsistency of readings at some potnecies and consistency at others.
Still nothing worthy of great surprise, although it does forebode
something, as these sudden consistencies were found at other diltions up
as high as 31.An anomalous pattern is beginning to emerge, as we shall
soon see.  But this is quickly overshadowed by what happens next.


When we get to the seventh dilution (7x) something very strange
happens. The average, peak and low PV for the 7x mercury chloride
amazingly drops .20 KV to 3.95 KV across the board, almost what it was at

Dilution      Average  Peak     Low puncture voltage (KV)
7x                3.95        3.95       3.95

At this point physics has been stood on its head. By the record of
the previous incline, the puncture voltage at 7x should average 4.5 KV,
but the PV has dropped more than half a kilovolt off its projected

And then, as if to doubly make the point, the eighth dilution
reveals exactly the same results.

8x                3.95        3.95       3.95

For the rest of the eight series that total 216 more tests of
dilutions ranging up to 33x, the results form into a pattern of a
sinusoidal curve, the PV rising and dropping, never going above a peak of
4.40 KV at 15X. After that point the sinusoid plots downward, achieving
the lowest PV resistance of 3.15 KV at 26x, 28x and 30 x dilutions.

Dielectric testing of SADs is remarkable because at dilutions above
24x there theoretically can be no more molecular content of the mercuric
chloride (MC) left in the water, yet the water is acting dielectrically
as if it is at a molecular  concentration of MC lower than 4x.  We can
speculate then that the structure of the water itself has changed to act
as if it actually carries the molecules of the governing MC substance

Have water polymers formed electrical channels to conduct electricity?

A dilution of 10 to the third power (3x) of a particular substance,
depending on its individual characteristics, is still enough to be
detected by human senses.


Let us take a moment to contemplate the drama of these results. Not
only is the SAD process challenging the notion of the non-specificity of
the subatomic field, it is giving us a flirting glance at what may be a
kind of alchemy.  We have seen that by artifice the characteristics of
one substance, the water, has been altered by the passage through it of
another, the mercury chloride, leaving the waterpure in its molecular
content yet transformed into something else measurably distinct from
other waters, even though its characteristics may be transitive or easily

The SAD process is not a natural one, and there is evidence that
homeopathy's founder, Samuel Hahnemann, discovered the process in ancient
alchemical texts while working as a translator in a Transylvanian medical
library (Brukenwald).

What would have happened if Brucato and Stephenson had continued to
test the dielectric stress of dilutions much higher than their limit of
33x? Although the results pattern themselves into a sinusoidal curve, we
can see that it appears to be dropping from a high of 4.40 at 15x to a
low of 3.15 KV at 30x.

Let us underline the results here. By using a homeopathic
preparation of mercuric chloride researchers were able to almost halve
the electrical resistance of water! Common theory demands that the water
that tested at a dilution of 30x have a puncture voltage of six (6)
kilovolts, since it is theoretically pure of contaminstion by MC at this
point,  but it nevertheless tested at only 3.15 KV!

These researchers are also telling us that different substances have
different puncture voltages. Are they suggesting that there may be
susbtances that would render even lower puncture voltages?

Could a string of water particles be impregnated with information
that could be read at a later time? Isn't this exactly what homeopathy
has been suggesting to us? What implications does this have for the
computer industry?

The theory may arise that the mechanical shock used in the SAD
manufacture process invokes more air into the water and this is what is
decreasing the water's resistance. However, Gay and Boiron tested dilutes
of salt against dilutes of pure water and were able to obtain a
difference.  The question still remains as to what the relaxation time,
if any , there is for water. How does mechanical shock alone affect the
puncture voltage?

From the data we have the notion that added air may affect the PV
still does not explain the differences between one dilution and the
another. Between the peaks and lows of the results one can see a pattern
emerging, especially at the higher potencies that the air thoery could
not account for.

At some potentially projected higher dilution the dielectric
qualities of the water may go even lower than the beginning dilution,
although we expect a second curve to emerge over a greater number of
dilutions. There is no limit to how high the dilutions may go, some
scales going as high as the millions.

We are further intrigued by the consequences this may have for other
applications. What does it mean for scientific, industrial or commercial
applications to lower the electrical resistance of water yet maintain its

It spawns other questions. What happens when a dilute of hydrogen
peroxide is put through this process? Could the SAD process kick another
oxygen particle into the water if given a chance to create hydrogen
peroxide out of plain water? What sort of oxygen measurements can be made
of water? Subsequently, we have seen that the SAD manufacturing process
has in previous experiments been shown to affect the pH of water.

Does the SAD process work on other substances? We have heard tales of
lead being turned into gold through alchemy by the addition of very small
amounts of a "philosopher's stone" and this attention to minutiae is
beginning to sound like something familiar. Might there be a possibility
that lead, given the template of gold and put through a process of shock
in a crucible, could transform into gold in the same way we suggested
water might be able to transmogrify into hydrogen peroxide?

         Further testing

As a final note to the dielectric tests, in addition to pH
measures, in 1982 a government team of scientists at the Indian
Department of Science and Technology, Jussal, Meera, Dua and Mishra
measured in SADs capacitance, resistance and dielectric dispersion.

They tested NaCi, KsCO3, lactose, BaCO3, ethanol, Euphrasia,
Syzigium and  Idicin at 100 Hz, 10 KHz,1 KHz  using a LCR bridge and time
domain reflectance spectroscopy (100 MHz to 4Ghz).

They too showed tht SADs have dielectric indices.

Reporting the results of only selected compounds., they said
"essentially similar behavior  was obtained in all cases, although
results were distinct for each compound."

Their graphs show the same kind of sinusoidal curves reported by Gay,
Boiron, Brucato and Stephenson.

In 1983 Jussal, Mishra and Dua continued dielectric testing in a
second, more thorough  government funded study of dielectric indices in
SADs using a Hewlett Packard Time Domain Spectroscope. Once again they
obtained sinusoidal curves in SAD preparations of Arsenic album As2O3 and
And once again they showed that specific substances to have impacted
SAD structured water and that they have somewhat predictable indices that
differ greatly from pure water.

In addition to the biochemical work of William Boyd, M.D., Jacques
Benveniste and others, and the numerous studies and observation of
effects SADs have on living organisms, including plant life, and the
growing number of clinical studies , it is our hope that a reexamination
of measures of SADs such as the dielectric will encourage others to
consider their value in the use of industry, agriculture  and medicine.


.) 1951 Gay, Alphonse.  Using a modified galvanometer, Gay discovers that
high dilutes have dielectric stress indices. "Presence of a Physical
Factor in Homeopathic Solutions, Edition des Laboratories P.H.R., Lyon

2.) 1952 Alphonse Gay and Jean Boiron , "A Study of the Physics of
Dynamization", Edition des Laboratories P.H.R., Lyon, France,

3.) 1953  Alphonse Gay and Jean Boiron.  In collaboration with Alphonse
Gay, Jean Boiron demonstrated in a double blind trial that high dilutes
have dielectric indices. Out of 700 selections they identified the high
dilute from the liquid vehicle using Gay's mercury armature galvanometer.
"A Physical Demonstration of the Real Existence of the Homeopathic
Remedy," Edition des Laboratories P.H.R., Lyon France

4.) 1966 Smith & Boericke, nuclear magnetic resonance
spectroscopy. Smith and Boericke in this report demonstrate that high
dilutes can be identified using nuclear magentic resonance.
"Modern instrumentation for the evaluation of homeopathic
drug structure", Journal of the American Institute of Homeopathy 59,

5.) 1966 Brucato & Stephenson. Using a 50 KV Alternating Current
Dielectric Tester, these two researchers repeated the discovery by Gay
and Boiron that homeopathic remedies have dielectric stress indices.
"Dielectric strength testing of homeopathic dilutions of HgCl2," Journal of the
American Institute of Homeopathy 59: 9-10: 281-286

6.) 1982 Jussal, Meera, Dua, & Mishra. Here they measured capacitance,
resistance and dielectric dispersion, H-ion
concentrations, electrode potentials using an LCR bridge,
time domain reflectance spectroscopy, digital pH meter,
and nonpolarising electrodes.  "Physical effects on the
suspending medium by compounds asymptotically infinite dilutions,"
Hahnemannian Gleanings, 3:114-120

7.) 1983 Jussal,  Mishra, & Dua "Dielectric dispersion of weak
alcoholic solutions of some drugs at high frequencies using
Time Domain Spectroscopy"
Hahnemannian Gleanings, 8: 358-366